Cochrane was born in Mare Island, California, on March 18, 1892. Son of
Brigadier General Henry Clay Cochrane, USMC Retired and Mrs. Elizabeth
Ferguson Lull Cochrane. He attended Chester, (Pennsylvania) High School and
the University of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia, prior to entering the U.S.
He entered the U, S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland, in 1910. Graduating
with distinction, he was commissioned an Ensign on June 6, 1914. He served in
the Navy line until transferred to Construction Corps of the Navy on 1917.
Periodic promotion saw him advanced temporary Lieutenant at the end of World
War I to the rank of Vice Admiral to date from 3 April 1945. Postgraduate
education in preparation for his transfer to the construction corps began in
January 1916, was interrupted by service in the Philadelphia Navy Yard during
World War 1, and was completed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
in June 1920, when he was awarded the degree of Master of Science in Naval
Architecture. Significant subsequent assignments included service as
Technical Advisor to the United States Delegation to the Conference on Safety
at Sea in London, duty in connection with submarine design and construction
in shipyards and the Bureau of Construction and Repair; and a tour as Force
Constructor on the staff of the Commander Scouting Forces, U. S. Fleet.
In September 1940 he was ordered to London, as Assistant Naval Attaché at the
American Embassy. From January 1941 to November 1942 he was Assistant Head of
the Design Division of the Bureau of Ships.
Appointed Chief of the Bureau of ships, with the rank of Rear Admiral, on
November 1, 1942, he directed the navy's shipbuilding and maintenance program
during the reminder of the war. On April 3, 1945, he was promoted to vice
Admiral. In November of 1946 he became Chief of the Material Division in the
office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy. In March 1947, he was
appointed a member of the President's Advisory Committee on the Merchant
Marine. He retired on November 1, 1947. Admiral Cochrane died November 14,
He is survived by his wife, the former Charlotte Osgood Wilson, of Chester,
Pennsylvania, and two sons, Captain Richard Lull Cochrane, USN, (Naval
Academy Class of 1940) and Commander Edward Lull Cochrane, USN, (Naval
Academy class of 1945).
The Puget Sound
Bridge & Dredging Company laid the keel for the USS COCHRANE (DDG-21) on
31 July 1961 in Seattle, Washington. This venerable old ship building company
had been building ships in Seattle since 1898. As she took form she became a
shipbuilder’s dream, with the elegant sheer of her bow and the classic lines
of a Destroyer. She was named for the Navy's supervisor of shipbuilding
during World War II, Vice Admiral Edward Lull Cochrane. The first ship of the
Navy to bear his name, USS COCHRANE was the twentieth unit of the CHARLES F.
ADAMS (DDG-2) class to be built for the United States Navy. Over 1,500,000
man-hours would go into her construction. The hull that would become USS
COCHRANE slid into the water on 18 July 1962. Tradition holds that the spirit
of her sponsors, Mrs. Richard L. Cochrane and Mrs. Edward L. Cochrane Jr.,
became infused into her that day. She sat waterborne at the building yard
while finishing touches were added.
USS COCHRANE (DDG-21) was commissioned on 21 March 1964 in Bremerton,
Washington by the Puget Sound Bridge & Drydock Company. During COCHRANE’s
construction the shipyard underwent an internal reorganization and a name
change in anticipation of being acquired by Lockheed Shipbuilding. COCHRANE
was one of only a few ships to be started by one company and finished by
another (in name only.) As the crew marched aboard and the colors were
raised, no one could have known that she would spend almost her entire career
outside the continental United States. After she departed for Pearl Harbor,
Hawaii on 25 May 1964, she would return to the mainland of her nation for
only two short periods. For the remaining 26 years of her commissioned life,
all but 39 days would be spent overseas.
USS COCHRANE joined Cruiser Destroyer Division TWO-FIFTY-TWO and was
initially home ported at Pearl Harbor. COCHRANE was built to go into harm’s
way. More heavily armed than any other ship of her size, she could defend
against the most modern of air, surface and underwater threats and could
strike back. Ships of this DDG-2 class were regarded over their commissioned
lives as being the most versatile, well-balanced Destroyer type ships ever
constructed. Of those DDG-2 class ships, almost none built the reputation for
multi-mission excellence, as did USS COCHRANE.
Over the first dozen years of her life COCHRANE deployed seven times to the
western Pacific in support of forces in Vietnam. She performed the
traditional tasks of a Destroyer such as rescue, plane-guard, search and
rescue unit and escort. She was initially assigned as a unit of DESRON 25.
(1st deployment -1965) Quickly called into service, COCHRANE deployed
from her Hawaii home to the western Pacific on 5 March 1965. By April 1965
she was on station providing Anti Air Warfare support to a Carrier Battle
Group (CVBG) off the coast of Vietnam. She returned from this deployment on 1
October 1965. Between then and her second deployment in July 1966 COCHRANE
operated out of Pearl Harbor on local training missions and as a support ship
of NASA's PROJECT GEMINI.
(2nd deployment - 1966) COCHRANE's second deployment to the western
Pacific lasted from July to December of 1966. The majority of this time was
spent in support of the United States forces in Vietnam. COCHRANE was
extremely busy during this period conducting ASW exercises, and acting as
plane-guard for the Carrier Battle Groups deployed off of Vietnam. She was
utilized as an Anti Air Warfare (AAW) picket ship, and for multiple Naval
Gunfire Support (NGFS) missions in the South China Sea and the Gulf of
Tonkin. NGFS missions included the destruction of convoys, and the support of
U.S. troops ashore in Dong Ha and Da Nang. Following this deployment it was
announced that COCHRANE had won the coveted Battle Efficiency "E"
an award for excellence during the previous 18 months. It was the first of
many Battle "E's" for COCHRANE.
Her second deployment completed, COCHRANE began her first regular overhaul
since commissioning. This extensive overhaul at the shipyard in Pearl Harbor
lasted until August 1967. The biggest external change to COCHRANE during the
overhaul was the upgrade of the AN/SPS-39’s semi-cylindrical radar antenna on
the after funnel, with a flat black planar array antenna. This upgrade gave
her a distinctively more modern look.
(3rd deployment - 1968) In February 1968 COCHRANE deployed to WESTPAC
for the third time. During this deployment she participated in every type of
SEVENTH Fleet operation which a Destroyer could be called upon to do. These
assignments include Northern Search and Rescue, Operation Sea Dragon, firing
missions against North Vietnam, and Naval Gunfire Support of Army, Marine
Corps, and Allied troops ashore in South Vietnam. She also was assigned as
Anti-Air Warfare Picket ship and plane-guard Destroyer for four U.S. aircraft
Carriers. On these assignments COCHRANE fired nearly 26,000 rounds of 5-inch
ammunition against enemy targets, causing extensive damage to roads, bridges,
radar sites, and waterborne logistic craft. It was during this deployment
that she came under fire from - and then destroyed in retaliation a shore
emplacement in the vicinity of Dong Hoi. After returning from this deployment
she was on call for the recovery of Apollo 7 and 8 and in March of 1969 she
stood by for Apollo 9.
(4th deployment - 1969) COCHRANE again deployed in 1969 for operations
in the North Pacific and again to Yankee Station. Once more her 5-inch-54
caliber guns were fired in anger supporting troops at Chu Lai and Da Nang.
Port visits to Subic Bay, Hong Kong and Taiwan followed. It was during her
visit to Subic in 1969 that COCHRANE played a role in a sad drama. USS FRANK
E. EVANS (DD-754) had been cut in half by the Australian Aircraft Carrier
HMAS MELBOURNE (R-21) on 31 June 1969. The bow sank taking over 80 sailors with
it. The stern somehow stayed afloat. It was towed to Subic Bay, drydocked,
surveyed and stricken from the Naval Vessel Register (NVR). It was towed out
to sea, and in October of 1969 the stern half was sunk by COCHRANE and other
warships in torpedo and gunnery exercises off the coast of the Philippines.
In 1970 COCHRANE entered the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard for another
scheduled Regular Conventional Over Haul (RCOH). After refresher training
(REFTRA) an Operational Propulsion Plant Readiness Exam (OPRE) and an In
Service inspection by the Navy’s Board of Inspection and Survey
(INSURV), she was off once more to WESTPAC.
(5th deployment - 1971) February of 1971 found her in route to Vietnam
escorting the Aircraft Carrier USS RANGER (CVA-61). In March she was off the
coast of Thailand supporting ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) Army
troops. She made several port calls including one of her many trips to
(6th deployment - 1972) In July 1972 she once again deployed to the war
zone off Vietnam. It was a hectic deployment even by COCHRANE standards.
August found her once again firing her 5-inch-54’s in support of U.S. forces
in the city of Quang Tri. In September she was ordered inshore again as part
of Operation Linebacker I. It was in COCHRANE’s role as a naval gunfire
support ship, that she experienced her most arduous duty. It was also this
duty that took her into hostile fire. Called upon to employ her guns, she
fired over 6000 rounds of ammunition, receiving some 1600 rounds of enemy fire
in return. Her official history states: "While never directly hit, it
was during the night of 25-26 October 1972 that COCHRANE received shrapnel
damage and holing topside from close air bursts. These operations were trying
on ship and crew, and in December she entered the Shipyard at Subic Bay for
major repairs to her guns.
(7th deployment - 1973) Returning to the coast of Vietnam she was
assigned shore bombardment missions as part of Operation Linebacker II. She
received heavy fire again on New Year's Day 1973, but still avoided a hit. In
the bulwark of the port bridge/wing, spots could still be found, throughout
her life, where the metal was pounded back into place after shrapnel tore
through it. Succeeding commanding officers left the marks as a badge of
courage for the ship and a reminder of the ship's valiant role in her
On 12 January 1973 COCHRANE participated in the last pitched surface gun
battle of the United States Navy. It was on this day that COCHRANE, along
with Destroyers USS McCAFFERY (DD-860) & USS TURNER JOY (DD-951), fought
the “Battle of Brandon Bay.” This was a classic Destroyer shore bombardment
mission that was typical of Destroyer operations in Vietnam. With the afloat
Commander embarked in COCHRANE, the three Destroyers started a high-speed run
in to the beach at approximately 2030 hours from 35,000 yards at 32+ knots.
Dodging over forty enemy shore batteries, from 28,000 yards in COCHRANE and
McCAFFERY initially took the brunt of the fire on the run-in. Zigzagging
their way to within 12,000 yards of the beach the three Destroyers commenced
their final approach. Taking heavy fire, the three ships turned parallel to
the beach at 10,000 yards and engaged in an intense, point-blank duel. Firing
on pre-planned targets and executing counter-battery missions, the gun
barrels on COCHRANE and both other ships glowed a bright red from the furious
battle. After firing on all pre-planned targets, the afloat commander ordered
COCHRANE and McCAFFERY to strategically withdraw with TURNER JOY covering the
rear. Zigzagging and heeling over at incredible angles, dodging 130mm rounds,
and being pummeled by the overpressure of B-52 strikes occurring close
inshore, all three ships made their way out of the kill zone.
The Vietnam War ended for the United States on 28 January 1973 with the
cease-fire signed by President Nixon and the North Vietnamese in Paris. In
February of 1973, COCHRANE was released to return to her homeport.
A midlife upgrade was performed in 1974 when COCHRANE entered overhaul once
more at the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard. There were major upgrades throughout
the ship. The most critical change was installation of the Naval Tactical
Data System – Junior Participating (JPTDS). This upgrade linked her into the
computerized real-time “eyes, ears, and orders” and fleet radar picture, like
the larger Carriers and Cruisers. It was a rare privilege indeed because
COCHRANE was one of only a few Destroyers of the DDG-2 class to receive this
system. The installation of the JPTDS system in a Destroyer size vessel was
made possible by the development of the compact AN/UYK-7 high-speed digital
computer. With this link to a Carrier battle group’s NTDS systems, COCHRANE
frequently served as air-traffic controller for individual Carrier fighter
aircraft – something unheard of in naval vessels smaller than Cruiser-class
ships. It was obvious to everyone in the battle group that COCHRANE was no
ordinary DDG. She emerged from the shipyard in March 1974 ready to
resume her role as an extraordinarily capable front-line battle platform.
(8th deployment - 1974) A deployment to the western Pacific and Indian
Ocean followed. Unlike her other frantic WESTPAC deployments, this one
allowed for visits to Singapore, and training with the Royal Tai Navy - a
relationship she was to continue over the years.
(9th deployment - 1975) The war in Vietnam ended for the United States
with the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) taking over responsibility
for the defense of South Vietnam. Things did not go well with this change in
responsibilities. Sensing blood, the North Vietnamese waited for the United
States to totally withdraw, and then re-built their forces. By Spring of 1975
South Vietnam was almost completely overrun by the North Vietnamese, and
COCHRANE was called on to assist in the evacuation of Saigon (now Ho Chi Min
City.) South Vietnamese President Duong Van Minh unconditionally surrendered
to the Communists in the early hours of April 30, 1975. As the last few
remaining Americans evacuate Saigon, the last two U.S. servicemen to die in
Vietnam were killed when their helicopter crashed during the evacuation.
Returning to Pearl Harbor in June 1975, COCHRANE starred in a television
episode of "Hawaii Five-0". Some particularly excellent shots of
her steaming port side to an aircraft Carrier, and then expertly executing an
emergency breakaway maneuver were featured.
(10th deployment - 1976-77) Once again in 1976 COCHRANE was called to
WESTPAC. Deployed to Korea, she operated with USS MIDWAY (CVA-41), and USS
CORAL SEA (CVA-43.)
Another year-long RCOH (Regular Conventional Overhaul) followed in 1978.
(11th deployment - 1979) Following another post-availability shakedown,
REFTRA, and NGFS workups, COCHRANE deployed again in 1979. It was a unique
trip to the South Pacific. In visits to Samoa, Tonga, Fiji, New Caledonia,
New Zealand, Australia and Indonesia, COCHRANE showed both the American flag
and American hospitality. Over 65,000 guests were hosted in a 4-month period.
(12th deployment - 29 AUG 1980 - 1 MAR 81) COCHRANE's next deployment
to WESTPAC came in 1980 under the command of Ronald D. Tucker CDR USN in
response to the Iranian takeover of the U. S. embassy. Nicknamed “Ron Wayne”
by the crew, his command style was flamboyant. Captain Tucker loved to
showboat with COCHRANE and the crew responded enthusiastically to his
leadership style. CDR Tucker had previously been USS COCHRANE's First
Lieutenant, then later returned as XO, then later returned as CO. He loved
the ship and crew (WETSU!) and was extremely proud of both. On the way to the
Indian Ocean, all-hands "Steel Beach" picnics were frequently held
on the fantail, and Captain Tucker stopped the ship over the deepest part of
the ocean one afternoon and announced, "swim call" for all hands.
On the westbound journey, the ship rescued a total of 148 "boat
people" fleeing Viet Nam into the South China Sea seeking freedom, and
COCHRANE's crew earned the Humanitarian Service Medal for the deed. Operating
with four different aircraft Carriers (USS EISENHOWER (CVN-69), USS
INDEPENDENCE ( CV-62), USS MIDWAY (CV-41), and USS RANGER (CV-61), she set a
DDG-2 class record for consecutive days at sea: seventy six days, serving
twice at Gonzo Station in the Northern Arabian Sea (offshore Iran, with
successive Carrier battle groups) with a brief R&R at Port Louis,
Mauritius (preceded by a very elaborate Shellback initiation ceremony when
crossing the equator) and a brief repair visit at Diego Garcia between the
two duty tours at Gonzo Station. During this deployment the ship relieved the
guided missile Cruiser USS South Carolina (CGN-37) as Alfa Whiskey (Anti-Air
Warfare Commander) and PIRAZ for all four Carrier battle groups. It was the
first and probably only time a DDG-2 class ship served as Alfa Whiskey for
four Carriers. Captain Tucker often requested near miss, max speed fly-bys
with both afterburners aflame from nearby F-14 pilots when COCHRANE was
serving as picket to a Carrier. The pilots happily obliged, and Tucker always
announced the event on the 1MC to allow the crew enough time to drop what
they were doing and go out on deck to watch the spectacle. After the release
of the Iranian hostages, COCHRANE was cleared to return to her homeport Pearl
Harbor. On the way home she stopped for fuel in Singapore, and made port
visits to Pataya Beach in Thailand, Hong Kong, and Subic Bay in the Republic
of the Philippines. She spent two weeks accomplishing much-needed repairs and
upkeep at Subic Bay in February of 1980. After departing Subic, she stopped
in Guam and at Kwajalien Island for fuel before arriving at Pearl Harbor on 1
March 1980. There were 20-foot seas on last three days of the journey home
and she arrived at Papa Hotel running on fumes. After a joyous homecoming and
some much needed stand down time, she conducted local operations in Hawaiian
waters until commencing overhaul at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard in July 1981.
This deployment earned this BZ from RADM Lautermilch, CTF 75: " .
. . COCHRANE's operations in the Seventh Fleet have included search and
rescue missions, humanitarian rescue efforts, and extended close support of
four Indian Ocean battle groups . . . Your expeditious recovery of a man
overboard [Ed.note: not a COCHRANE sailor] during an underway replenishment
in December is an example of the high state of readiness and attention to
detail which prevails on COCHRANE. COMSEVENTHFLEET and I extend our
compliments to COCHRANE's professionals."
On completion of this deployment, the ship received this message from Mrs.
Charlotte Cochrane, widow of VADM Edward Lull Cochrane:
"Congratulations on getting the "E" award, also the
"DC," "C," "Gunnery E," "Missile E,"
and "A" awards. Nothing left to be desired! You are all the
'greatest'. I only wish Adm. Cochrane could know. I know he would be aglow
with pleasure and satisfaction."
COCHRANE entered Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard in July 1981. During her
overhaul she occupied Drydock One - the same dock where the Destroyers USS
CASSIN (DD-372) and USS DOWNES (DD-375) along with the Battleship USS
PENNSYLVANIA (BB-38) were bombed on 7 DEC 1941. The extended regular
conventional overhaul would take some 14 months.
It was during this overhaul that COCHRANE would receive many upgrades to her
weapons and physical plant. Upgrades including addition of the AN/SLQ-32 (V2)
electronics warfare system, the addition of an amidships sonar dome to
upgrade the sonar to AN/SQQ-23 PAIR (Performance And Integration Retrofit)
configuration. Upgrades to her AN/SPG-51 missile radars, and the AN/SPG-53F gun
fire control radar added to systems reliability. Finally refurbishment of
boilers, the steam plant, and additional air conditioning capacity rounded
out her re-fit. She emerged from the Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard in July
1982, with several months of fitting out and acceptance trials.
On 9 FEB 1983 COCHRANE set sail for refresher training (REFTRA) in San Diego,
California. Naval Gunfire Support Missions were successfully conducted at San
Clemente Island as well as live firings of the ASROC (Anti-Submarine Rocket)
and Standard Missile system. On 14 March 1983 after spending the last
“commissioned” days she would see on the mainland of her country, COCHRANE
departed San Diego for Pearl Harbor.
Worked up and ready for her proposed 13th deployment, scheduled for 23 April
1983 to the Indian Ocean, her fate was suddenly changed. The Chief of Naval
Operations (CNO) changed the homeport of USS COCHRANE from Pearl Harbor,
Hawaii to Yokosuka, Japan. The WESTPAC deployment was cancelled, and official
confirmation was received on 1 July 1983.
COCHRANE arrived in her new homeport of Yokosuka, Japan on 10 October 1983.
After a 1-month transition period for the crew, she got underway in November
of 1983 for refresher training and port visits. After visiting Hong Kong she
steamed to the Philippines for refresher training. During this visit she
completed NGFS re-certification by firing over 800 rounds of 5-inch-54 during
a 22-hour mission. After completing REFTRA and a port visit to Subic Bay, she
returned to Yokosuka for Christmas 1983.
(13th deployment - 1984) In January of 1984 she deployed to the Indian
Ocean once more. Deployments to the Indian Ocean followed again in 1987
(#14), and 1989 (#15). In between, there were major exercises with the Asian
COCHRANE's final year in commission - 1990 - reflected her career. Completion
of an Indian Ocean deployment (#16) which included visits to Kenya and
Australia; contingency operations near Manila Bay as part of Operation
"Classic Resolve" in support of the Philippine government; action
as a Warfare Commander and as Naval Gunfire Support Coordinator in Exercise
Team Spirit 90, and visits to various ports in the Far East.
USS COCHRANE (DDG-21) returned from the sea under her own power for the last
time on 11 June 1990 and entered Drydock Six (Yokosuka Naval Shipyard) on 23
June to begin deactivation. Her decommissioning on 1 October 1990 marked the
end of a long and proud career in her nation's defense. She steamed over a
million miles in service to her country. Of her long and lucky career it was
often noted by her crews "God protects fools, old people, small
children, and U.S. guided missile Destroyers called COCHRANE." It was as
if the spirit of her sponsors looked over and protected the crews of this
ship all her commissioned life. It was planned to hold her in Reserve
Mobilization Category B at Pearl Harbor as a ready asset should her country
need her again.
Rigged with a towing bridle and along with USS TOWERS (DDG-9), she was taken
in tow for the Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility (NISMF) at Pearl
Harbor, Hawaii in early 1991. During this tow there was a collision at sea
with USS TOWERS (DDG-9) that severely damaged her stern and caused flooding
in the after steering room to within 2 feet of the overhead.
With “Condition Zebra” set for towing she was in no danger of sinking. She
was returned to the Yokosuka Naval Shipyard for repairs. Upon completion of
repairs she was towed to the NISMF Pearl Harbor in late 1991. When she
arrived she was given the complete inactivation treatment. Protective huts
covered her ASROC and MK-13 missile launchers. Dehumidifiers were installed
aboard, and the ship was rendered airtight. Provisions for shore power were
made, and cathodic protection was added. It was in this state that she rested
until November 1992.
As good a warship as COCHRANE was, technology and time finally caught up with
her. The Navy had decided that the days of the steam driven Destroyer were
over. The newer classes of Destroyers and Cruisers with their LM2500 GE gas
turbine engines required far fewer men to operate. They required only minutes
to be ready to get underway (as compared to many hours after light-off for
COCHRANE's 1200-pound steam plant to be ready to get underway). And they were
easier to maintain and overhaul. With the end of the Cold War, proposed
conversions of COCHRANE to gas turbine propulsion and advanced weapons were
ruled out as cost prohibitive.
USS COCHRANE (DDG-21) was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register on 20
November 1992 along with most of the rest of the CHARLES F. ADAMS-class to
which she belonged. The dehumidifiers and all protective equipment were
removed, and the ship de-militarized. Several scrapping contracts were let,
but all defaulted. The cost of scrapping her while complying with new and
costly environmental regulations made it impossible for shipyards in the
United States to make any money. She sat in the Naval Inactive Ships
Maintenance Facility at Pearl Harbor. Stripped of her weapons and electronics,
still drawing shore power for internal lighting, she awaited a lonely and
certain destiny with the scrappers.
The Navy finally had to face reality - gone were the days when scrappers
would pay $40,000 for a Navy Destroyer so they could haul it off and strip
it. The Navy was now going to have to pay millions in fees to environmentally
responsible ship dismantlers. In late 2000, under the Navy Disposal project,
ex-USS COCHRANE (DDG-21) was awarded to International Ship Breaking in
Brownsville, Texas for dismantling.
She departed Pearl Harbor under tow for the last time with ex-USS BENJAMIN
STODDERT (DDG-22) to commence the long tow to Brownsville, Texas where
both units were to be scrapped. During this tow in February 2001 ex-BENJAMIN
STODDERT started taking on water in the middle of the Pacific. The tug crew
cut STODDERT loose in the middle of the Pacific and watched as she slipped
below the waves. This left COCHRANE to finish out the journey alone.
On 7 March 2001 she arrived at the Panama Canal where she was to make her one
and only transit of the canal, under tow. On 26 March 2001 she arrived at the
Sea Buoy off Brownsville, Texas.
On 31 March 2001 the final crew members to board COCHRANE conducted an
emotional ceremony to remember those shipmates of DDG-21 who had died. The
fallen men of COCHRANE were piped over the side, and finally the spirit that
entered her so long ago, was piped over the side. "COCHRANE …
departing." Her soul is now released and as with the name COCHRANE, that
spirit awaits another DDG and its crew to serve in and to watch over.
USS COCHRANE (DDG-21) was certified by the United States Navy as having
ceased to exist as an official entity on 28 SEP 2001. This was the date the
ship was certified as being completely disassembled.
Written by: Larry Wilson / USS Cochrane (DDG 21) association > www.usscochrane.com