Aircraft Carrier

CV 9 / CVA 9 / CVS 9  -  USS Essex

 

 

 cva cvs 9 uss essex insignia crest patch badge aircraft carrier us navy

cva cvs 9 uss essex aircraft carrier us navy newport news shipbuilding

Type, Class:

 

Aircraft Carrier; Essex - class

Builder:

 

Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia, USA

STATUS:

 

Awarded: July 3, 1940

Laid down: April 28, 1941

Launched: July 31, 1942

Commissioned: December 31, 1942 (as CV 9)

Decommissioned: January 9, 1947

SCB-27A modification: February 1949 - January 1951

Recommissioned: January 15, 1951

redesignated CVA 9 on October 1, 1952

SCB-125 modification: August 1955 - January 1956

redesignated CVS 9 on March 8, 1960

Decommissioned: June 30, 1969

Fate: scrapped in 1975

Homeport:

 

-

Namesake:

 

Essex town and county, Massachusetts, USA

Ship’s Motto:

 

E NAVIBUS PUGNISSIMA

Technical Data:

(Measures, Propulsion,

Armament, Aviation, etc.)

 

see: INFO > Essex class Aircraft Carrier

History:

 

! for ship history go to the bottom of this page !

 

Deployments:

 

June 1951 - March 1952 with Carrier Air Group 5 (CVG-5) - Western Pacific, Korean War

June 1952 - February 1953 with Air Task Group 2 (ATG-2) - Western Pacific, Korean War

December 1953 - July 1954 with Air Task Group 2 (ATG-2) - Western Pacific

November 1954 - June 1955 with Carrier Air Group 2 (CVG-2) - Western Pacific

July 1956 - January 1957 with Carrier Air Group 11 (CVG-11) - Western Pacific

February 1958 - November 1958 with Air Task Group 201 (ATG-201) - Mediterrranean Sea, Indian Ocean, Western Pacific

August 1959 - February 1960 with Carrier Air Group 10 (CVG-10) - Mediterrranean Sea

September 1960 - December 1960 with Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Group 60 (CVSG-60) - Mediterrranean Sea

October 1961 - February 1962 with Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Group 56 (CVSG-56) - Northern Atlantic

October 1963 - December 1963 with Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Group 60 (CVSG-60) - Mediterrranean Sea

June 1964 - August 1964 with Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Group 60 (CVSG-60) - Mediterrranean Sea

June 1965 - September 1965 with Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Group 60 (CVSG-60) - Mediterrranean Sea

May 1967 - September 1967 with Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Group 54 (CVSG-54) - Northern Atlantic, Mediterrranean Sea

February 1968 - June 1968 with Carrier Anti-Submarine Air Group 60 (CVSG-60) - Mediterrranean Sea

 

ship images

 

cva cvs 9 uss essex aircraft carrier us navy 1967

with CVSG-54 embarked - 1967

 

cvs 9 uss essex aircraft carrier us navy cvsg-54 1967

with CVSG-54 embarked - 1967

 

cvs-9 uss essex aircraft carrier us navy 1967

with CVSG-54 embarked - 1967

 

cva cvs-9 uss essex

1967

 

cva cvs 9 uss essex 1966

1966

 

with CVSG-60 embarked - 1965

 

cva cvs-9 uss essex aircraft carrier 1964

1964

 

1964

 

cvs-9 uss essex

1964

 

1963

 

1962

 

cva cvs 9 uss essex 1962

1962

 

1961

 

1961

 

1961

 

cva-9 uss essex aircraft carrier 1960

1960

 

1960

 

cva-9 uss essex aircraft carrier 1960

1960

 

cvs-9 uss essex us navy

1960

 

cv-9 uss essex aircraft carrier us navy 1960

1960

 

cva-9 uss essex aircraft carrier

1960

 

1960

 

1960

 

1960

 

circa 1960

 

cva 9 uss essex 1959

1959

 

cva-9 uss essex air task group atg-201

with ATG-201 embarked - 1958

 

1958

 

cva-9 uss essex aircraft carrier 1957

1957

 

1957

 

1957

 

1957

 

circa 1957

 

circa 1957

 

cva 9 uss essex us navy 1957

1957

 

cva-9 uss essex carrier air group cvg-11 1956

after SCB-125 conversion with CVG-11 embarked - 1956

 

1956

 

cva 9 uss essex 1956

1956

 

1956

 

cva-9 uss essex carrier air group cvg-2

with CVG-2 embarked - 1955

 

with CVG-2 embarked - 1955

 

with CVG-2 embarked - 1955

 

1955

 

circa 1955

 

circa 1955

 

mid 1950’s

 

cva-9 uss essex aircraft carrier 1953

1953

 

1953

 

cv 9 uss essex aircraft carrier scb-27a conversion 1951

after SCB-27A conversion - 1951

 

1951

 

1951

 

1951

 

 

cv-9 uss essex aircraft carrier 1945

1945

 

cv-9 uss essex kamikaze hit 1944

a Kamikaze hits USS Essex - November 1944

 

a Kamikaze hits USS Essex - November 1944

 

cv-9 uss essex 1944

1944

 

1944

 

cv-9 uss essex class aircraft carrier us navy 1944 camouflage

1944

 

1944

 

cv 9 uss essex 1943

1943

 

1943

 

1943

 

1943

 

cv 9 uss essex aircraft carrier us navy 1943

1943

 

photo credits: US National Naval Aviation Museum, US Navy History & Heritage Command ...

 

 

USS Essex (CV 9 / CVA 9 / CVS 9):

USS Essex (CV/CVA/CVS-9) was an aircraft carrier, the lead ship of the 24-ship Essex class built for the United States Navy during World War II. She was the fourth US Navy ship to bear the name. Commissioned in December 1942, Essex participated in several campaigns in the Pacific Theater of Operations, earning the Presidential Unit Citation and 13 battle stars. Decommissioned shortly after the end of the war, she was modernized and recommissioned in the early 1950s as an attack carrier (CVA), and then eventually became an antisubmarine aircraft carrier (CVS). In her second career she served mainly in the Atlantic, playing a role in the Cuban Missile Crisis. She also participated in the Korean War, earning four battle stars and the Navy Unit Commendation. She was the primary recovery carrier for the Apollo 7 space mission.

She was decommissioned for the last time in 1969 and sold for scrap in 1975.


Construction and Commissioning:
Essex was laid down on 28 April 1941 by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. After the Pearl Harbor attack her building contract (along with the same for CV-10 and CV-12) was reworked. After an accelerated construction, she was launched on 31 July 1942, sponsored by Mrs. Artemus L. Gates, the wife of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air. She was commissioned on 31 December 1942 with Captain Donald B. Duncan commanding.



History

World War II

Following her builders trials and shakedown cruise (both also accelerated), Essex steamed to the Pacific in May 1943 to begin a succession of victories which would bring her to Tokyo Bay. Departing from Pearl Harbor, she participated with Task Force 16 (TF 16) in carrier operations against Marcus Island (31 August 1943); was designated the flagship of TF 14 and struck Wake Island (5-6 October); participated in carrier operations during the Rabaul strike (11 November 1943), along with Bunker Hill and Princeton; launched an attack with Task Group 50.3 (TG 50.3) against the Gilbert Islands where she also took part in her first amphibious assault, the landing on Tarawa Atoll (18-23 November). Refueling at sea, she cruised as flagship of TG 50.3 to attack Kwajalein (4 December). Her second amphibious assault delivered in company with TG 58.2 was against the Marshall Islands (29 January-2 February 1944).


Essex - in TG 58.2 - now joined with TG 58.1 and TG 58.3 to constitute Task Force 58 (the "Fast Carrier Task Force"), to launch an attack against Truk (17–18 February) during which eight Japanese ships were sunk. En route to the Mariana Islands to sever Japanese supply lines, the carrier force was detected and received a prolonged aerial attack which it repelled in a businesslike manner and then continued with the scheduled attack upon Saipan, Tinian and Guam (23 February).

After this operation, Essex proceeded to San Francisco for her single wartime overhaul. Following her overhaul, Essex became the carrier for Air Group 15, the "Fabled Fifteen," commanded by the U.S. Navy's top ace of the war, David McCampbell. She then joined carriers Wasp and San Jacinto in TG 12.1 to strike Marcus Island (19-20 May) and Wake (23 May). She deployed with TF 58 to support the occupation of the Marianas (12 June - 10 August); sortied with TG 38.3 to lead an attack against the Palau Islands (6-8 September), and Mindanao (9-10 September) with enemy shipping as the main target, and remained in the area to support landings on Peleliu. On 2 October, she weathered a typhoon and four days later departed with Task Force 38 (TF 38) for the Ryukyus.

For the remainder of 1944, she continued her frontline action, participating in strikes against Okinawa (10 October), and Formosa (12-14 October), covering the Leyte landings, taking part in the Battle for Leyte Gulf (24-25 October), and continuing the search for enemy fleet units until 30 October, when she returned to Ulithi, Caroline Islands, for replenishment. She resumed the offensive and delivered attacks on Manila and the northern Philippine Islands during November. On 25 November, for the first time in her far-ranging operations and destruction to the enemy, Essex received damage. A kamikaze hit the port edge of her flight deck landing among planes gassed for takeoff, causing extensive damage, killing 15, and wounding 44.

Following quick repairs, she operated with the task force off Leyte supporting the occupation of Mindoro (14-16 December). She rode out the typhoon of 18 December and made special search for survivors afterwards. With TG 38.3, she participated in the Lingayen Gulf operations, launched strikes against Formosa, Sakishima, Okinawa, and Luzon. Entering the South China Sea in search of enemy surface forces, the task force pounded shipping and conducted strikes on Formosa, the China coast, Hainan, and Hong Kong. Essex withstood the onslaught of the third typhoon in four months (20-21 January 1945) before striking again at Formosa, Miyako-jima and Okinawa (26-27 January).

For the remainder of the war, she operated with TF 58, conducting attacks against the Tokyo area (16-17, and 25 February) both to neutralize the enemy's air power before the landings on Iwo Jima and to cripple the aircraft manufacturing industry. She sent support missions against Iwo Jima and neighboring islands, but from 23 March - 28 May was employed primarily to support the conquest of Okinawa.

In the closing days of the war, Essex took part in the final telling raids against the Japanese home islands (10 July - 15 August). Following the surrender, she continued defensive combat air patrols until 3 September, when she was ordered to Bremerton, Washington for inactivation. On 9 January 1947, she was placed out of commission in reserve. Modernization endowed Essex with a new flight deck, and a streamlined island superstructure on 16 January 1951, when she was recommissioned, with Captain A. W. Wheelock commanding.


Korean War

After a brief cruise in Hawaiian waters, she began the first of three tours in Far Eastern waters during the Korean War. She served as flagship for Carrier Division 1 (CarDiv 1) and Task Force 77. She was the first carrier to launch F2H Banshees on combat missions; on 16 September 1951, one of these planes, damaged in combat, crashed into aircraft parked on the forward flight deck causing an explosion and fire which killed seven. After repairs at Yokosuka, she returned to frontline action on 3 October to launch strikes up to the Yalu River and provide close air support for U.N. troops. Her two deployments in the Korean War were from August 1951 - March 1952 and July 1952 - January 1953.

On 1 December 1953, she started her final tour of the war, sailing in the East China Sea with what official U.S. Navy records describe as the "Peace Patrol". From November 1954 - June 1955, she engaged in training exercises, operated for three months with the United States Seventh Fleet, assisted in the Tachen Islands evacuation, and engaged in air operations and fleet maneuvers off Okinawa.


Pacific Fleet

In July 1955, Essex entered Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for repairs and extensive alterations. The SCB-125 modernization program included installation of an angled flight deck and an enclosed hurricane bow, as well as relocation of the aft elevator to the starboard deck edge. Modernization completed, she rejoined the Pacific Fleet in March 1956. For the next 14 months, the carrier operated off the West Coast, except for a six-month cruise with the 7th Fleet in the Far East. Ordered to join the Atlantic Fleet for the first time in her long career, she sailed from San Diego on 21 June 1957, rounded Cape Horn, and arrived in Mayport, Florida on 1 August.


Atlantic and Mediterranean

In the fall of 1957, Essex participated as an anti-submarine carrier in the NATO exercise Strikeback and in February 1958, deployed with the 6th Fleet until May, when she shifted to the eastern Mediterranean. Alerted to the Middle East crisis on 14 July 1958, she sped to support the U.S. Peace Force landing in Beirut, Lebanon, launching reconnaissance and patrol missions until 20 August. Once again, she was ordered to proceed to Asian waters, and transited the Suez Canal to arrive in the Taiwan operational area, where she joined TF 77 in conducting flight operations before rounding the Horn and proceeding back to Mayport.

Essex joined with the 2nd Fleet and British ships in Atlantic exercises and with NATO forces in the eastern Mediterranean during the fall of 1959. In December she aided victims of a disastrous flood at Fréjus, France.

In the spring of 1960, she was converted into an ASW Support Carrier and was thereafter homeported at Quonset Point, Rhode Island. Since that time she operated as the flagship of CarDiv 18 and Antisubmarine Carrier Group Three. She conducted rescue and salvage operations off the New Jersey coast for a downed blimp; cruised with midshipmen, and was deployed on NATO and CENTO exercises that took her through the Suez Canal into the Indian Ocean. Ports of call included Karachi and the British Crown Colony of Aden. In November she joined the French navy in Operation "Jet Stream".


Bay of Pigs and Cuban Missile Crisis

In April 1961, Essex steamed out of Naval Station Mayport, Florida on a two-week "routine training" cruise, purportedly to support the carrier qualification of a squadron of Navy pilots. Twelve A4D-2 Skyhawks had been loaded aboard, the aircraft, pilots and support crews all from attack squadron VA-34, the Blue Blasters. The A4D-2Ns were armed with 20 mm cannon, and after several days at sea all their identifying markings were crudely obscured with flat gray paint. They began flying mysterious missions day and night with at least one returning bearing battle damage. Not generally known to Essex crew was that they had been tasked to provide air support to CIA-sponsored bombers during the ill-fated Bay of Pigs Invasion. The naval aviation part of the mission was aborted by President Kennedy at the last moment and the Essex crew sworn to secrecy.

Later in 1961, Essex completed a "People to People" cruise to Northern Europe with ports of call in Rotterdam, Hamburg, and Greenock, Scotland. During the Hamburg visit over one million visitors toured Essex. During her departure, Essex almost ran aground in the shallow Elbe River. On her return voyage to CONUS, she ran into a severe North Atlantic storm (January 1962) and suffered major structural damage. In early 1962, she went into drydock in the Brooklyn Navy Yard for a major overhaul.

Essex had just finished her six-month-long overhaul and was at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base for sea trials when President John F. Kennedy placed a naval "quarantine" on Cuba in October 1962, in response to the discovered presence of Soviet missiles in that country (see Cuban Missile Crisis). (The word quarantine was used rather than blockade for reasons of international law - Kennedy reasoned that a blockade would be an act of war, and war had not been declared between the U.S. and Cuba.) Essex spent over a month in the Caribbean as one of the US Navy ships enforcing this "quarantine", returning home just before Thanksgiving.


Nautilus incident

While conducting replenishment exercises with NATO forces in November 1966, Essex collided with the submerged submarine USS Nautilus (SSN-571). The Nautilus sustained extensive sail damage, returning to port unassisted. Aboard Essex, the hull was opened and the ship's speed indicator equipment was destroyed, but the carrier was still able to make port unassisted. Essex subsequently reported to the Boston Naval Shipyard for extensive overhaul and hull repairs.


Apollo missions

Essex was scheduled to be the prime recovery carrier for the ill fated Apollo 1 space mission. It was to pick up Apollo 1 astronauts north of Puerto Rico on 7 March 1967 after a 14-day spaceflight. However, the mission did not take place because on 27 January 1967, the Apollo 1‍ '​s crew was killed by a flash fire in their spacecraft on LC-34 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

Essex was the prime recovery carrier for the Apollo 7 mission. She recovered the Apollo 7‍ '​s crew on 22 October 1968 after a splashdown north of Puerto Rico.

Essex was the main vessel on which future Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong served during the Korean War.


Decommissioning and disposal

Essex was decommissioned on 30 June 1969 and was moored at the Boston Navy Yard. She was struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 June 1973, and sold by the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Service (DRMS) for scrapping on 1 June 1975.

source: wikipedia

 

- - -

 

another history:

 

The fourth Essex (CV-9) was launched 31 July 1942 by Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co. sponsored by Mrs. Artemus L. Gates, wife of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air; and commissioned 31 December 1942, Captain D. B. Duncan commanding. She was reclassified (CVA-9) on 1 October 1952, and (CVS-9) on 8 March 1960.

Following her shakedown cruise Essex sailed to the Pacific in May 1943 to begin a succession of victories which would bring her to Tokyo Bay. Departing Pearl Harbor, she participated with TF 15 in carrier operations against Marcus Island (31 August 1943); was designated flagship of TF 14 and struck Wake Island (5-6 October); launched an attack with TG 50.3 against the Gilbert Islands where she also took part in her first amphibious assault, the landing on Tarawa (18-23 November). Refueling at sea, she cruised as flagship of TG 50.3 to attack Kwajalein (4 December). Her second amphibious assault delivered in company with TG 58.2 was against the Marshalls (29 January-2 February 1944).

Essex in TG 58.2 now joined with TG 58.1 and 58.3, to constitute the most formidable carrier striking force to date, in launching an attack against Truk (17-18 February) during which eight Japanese ships were sunk. En route to the Marianas to sever Japanese supply lines, the carrier force was detected and received a prolonged aerial attack which it repelled in a businesslike manner and then continued with the scheduled attack upon Saipan, Tinian and Guam (23 February).

After this operation Essex proceeded to San Francisco for her single wartime overhaul. She then joined carriers Wasp (CV-18) and San Jacinto (CVL-30) in TG 12.1 to strike Marcus Island (19-20 May) and Wake (23 May). She deployed with TF 58 to support the occupation of the Marianas (12 June-10 August); sortied with TG 38.3 to lead an attack against the Palau Islands (6-8 September), and Mindanao (9-10 September) with enemy shipping as the main target, and remained in the area to support landings on Peleliu. On 2 October she weathered a typhoon and 4 days later departed with TF 38 for the Ryukyus.

For the remainder of 1944 she continued her frontline action, participating in strikes against Okinawa (10 October), and Formosa (12-14 October), covering the Leyte landings, taking part in the battle for Leyte Gulf (24-25 October), and continuing the search for enemy fleet units until 30 October when she returned to Ulithi, Caroline Islands, for replenishment. She resumed the offensive and delivered attacks on Manila and the northern Philippine Islands during November. On 25 November, for the first time in her far-ranging operations and destruction to the enemy, Essex received injury. A kamikaze hit the port edge of her flight deck landing among planes gassed for takeoff, causing extensive damage, killing 15, and wounding 44.

This "cramped her style" very little. Following quick repairs we find her with 3d Fleet off Luzon supporting the occupation of Mindoro (14-16 December). She rode out the typhoon of 18 December and made special search for survivors afterwards. With TG 38.3 she participated in the Lingayen Gulf operations, launched strikes against Formosa, Sakishima, Okinawa, and Luzon. Entering the South China Sea in search of enemy surface forces, the task force pounded shipping and conducted strikes on Formosa, the China coast, Hainan, and Hong Kong. Essex withstood the onslaught of the third typhoon in 4 months (20-21 January 1945) before striking again at Formosa, Miyakp Shima and Okinawa (26-27 January).

During the remainder of the war she operated with TF 58, conducting attacks against the Tokyo area (16-17, and 25 February) both to neutralize the enemy's airpower before the landings on Iwo Jima and to cripple the aircraft manufacturing industry. She sent support missions against Iwo Jima and neighboring islands, but from 23 March to 28 May was employed primarily to support the conquest of Okinawa.

In the closing days of the war, Essex took part in the final telling raids against the Japanese home islands (10 July-15 August). Following the surrender, she continued defensive combat air patrols until 3 September when she was ordered to Bremerton, Wash., for inactivation. On 9 January 1947 she was placed out of commission in reserve.

Modernization endowed Essex with a new flight deck, and a streamlined island superstructure, on 15 January 1951 when recommissioned, Captain A. W. Wheelock commanding.

After a brief cruise in Hawaiian waters she began the first of three tours in Far Eastern waters during the Korean war. She served as flagship for Carrier Division 1 and TF 77. She was the first carrier to launch F2H "Banshee" twin-jet fighters on combat missions; on 16 September 1951 one of these planes, damaged in combat, crashed into aircraft parked on the forward flight deck causing an explosion and fire which killed seven. After repairs at Yokosuka she returned to front-line action on 3 October to launch strikes up to the Yalu River and provide close air support for U.N. troops.

On 1 December 1953 she started her final tour of the war, sailing the China Sea with the Peace Patrol. From November 1954 to June 1955 she engaged in training exercises, operated for 3 months with the 7th Fleet, assisted in the Tachen Islands evacuation, and engaged in air operations and fleet maneuvers off Okinawa.

In July 1955 Essex entered Puget Sound Naval Shipyard for repairs and extensive alterations, including installation of an angled flight deck. Modernization completed, she rejoined the Pacific Fleet in March 1956. For the next 14 months the carrier operated off the west coast, except for a 6-month cruise with the 7th Fleet in the Far East. Ordered to join the Atlantic Fleet for the first time in her long career, she sailed from San Diego on 21 June 1957, rounded Cape Horn, and arrived in Mayport, Fla., on 1 August.

In the fall of 1957 Essex participated as an antisubmarine carrier in the NATO exercises, "Strike Back," and in February 1958 deployed with the 6th Fleet until May when she shifted to the eastern Mediterranean. Alerted to the Middle East crisis on 14 July 1958 she sped to support the U.S. Peace Force landing in Beirut, Lebanon, launching reconnaissance and patrol missions until 20 August. Once again she was ordered to proceed to Asian waters, and transitted the Suez Canal to arrive in the Taiwan operational area where she joined TF 77 in conducting flight operations before rounding the Horn and proceeding back to Mayport.

Essex joined with the 2d Fleet and British ships in Atlantic exercises and with NATO forces in the eastern Mediterranean during the fall of 1959. In December she aided victims of a disastrous flood at Frejus, France.

In the spring of 1960 she was converted into an ASW Support Carrier and was thereafter homeported at Quonset Point, R.I. Since that time she has operated as flagship of Carrier Division 18 and Antisubmarine Carrier Group Three. She conducted rescue and salvage operations off the New Jersey coast for a downed blimp; cruised with midshipmen, and was deployed on NATO and CENTO exercises. In November she joined the French navy in Operation "Jet Stream" and since that time has continued her widespread activities in protection of freedom and peace.

Essex received the Presidential Unit Citation, and 13 battle stars for World War II service; 4 battle stars and the Navy Unit Commendation for Korean war service.

 

source: US Naval History & Heritage Command

 

patches & more

 

 

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