Laid down: August 7, 1943 (as USS Hawkbill)
Launched: January 9, 1944 (USS Hawkbill)
Commissioned: March 15, 1944 (USS Hawkbill)
June 21, 1946 (USS Hawkbill)
Recommissioned: May 5, 1952 (USS Hawkbill)
Decommissioned: July 29, 1952 (USS Hawkbill)
converted to a
Recommissioned: December 10, 1952 (USS Hawkbill)
Decommissioned: April 21, 1953 (USS Hawkbill)
(loaned) under terms of the Military Defense Assistance Program to RNLN
Zeeleeuw (S 803)
sold to The
Netherlands: February 20, 1970
with RNLN: 1953-70
sold for scrap in 1970 / scrapped in The Netherlands
USS Hawkbill (SS-366), a Balao-class submarine, was the first ship of
the United States Navy to be named for the hawksbill, a large sea turtle (the
"-s-" was inadvertently dropped at commissioning).
Hawkbill (SS-366) was launched by Manitowoc Shipbuilding Co., Manitowoc,
Wisc. 9 January 1944; sponsored by Mrs. F. W. Scanland, Jr., and commissioned
17 May 1944, Lt. Comdr. F. Worth Scanland, Jr., in command.
Following a period of training on the Great Lakes, the submarine departed 1
June 1944 from Manitowoc to begin the long journey down the Illinois River
and finally by barge down the Mississippi. She arrived New Orleans 10 June
and, after combat loading, sailed 16 June for training out of the submarine
base, Balboa, Canal Zone. With this vital training completed, she arrived
Pearl Harbor 28 July for final preparations before her first war patrol.
First and Second War Patrols
Departing 23 August, the submarine steamed via Saipan to her patrol area in
the Philippine Islands in company with Baya and Becuna. In October Hawkbill
shifted patrol to the South China Sea and, while approaching two carriers 7
October, was forced down by violent depth charging by Japanese destroyers.
Two days later she attacked a 12-ship convoy with Becuna, damaging several of
the ships. Hawkbill transited heavily patrolled Lombok Strait 14 October, and
terminated her first patrol at Fremantle, Australia on 17 October.
In company with Becuna and Flasher (SS-249), the submarine departed for her
second patrol 15 November bound for the area north of the Malay Barrier. She
encountered a convoy 15 December and sank destroyer Momo with six well-placed
torpedoes during a night attack. Finding few contacts - a testament to the
effectiveness of the American submarines - Hawkbill headed once more for
Lombok Strait. This time she was sighted by a patrol craft, but cleverly
maneuvered into a rain squall. The submarine was then fired-upon by shore
batteries before passing out of range. Hawkbill returned to Fremantle 5
Third and Fourth War Patrols
On her third war patrol beginning 5 February, the submarine returned to
Lombok Strait to turn the tables on her former pursuers. Her torpedoes sank
two submarine chasers 14 February, and she added some small craft before
turning for the South China Sea. Hawkbill detected a convoy 20 February;
after engaging one escort with gunfire, she sank 5,400-ton cargo ship Daizen
Maru with a spread of torpedoes. The rest of her patrol brought no targets;
she arrived Fremantle 6 April 1945.
Departing on her fourth patrol 5 May, Hawkbill served on lifeguard station
for a B-24 strike on the Kangean Islands north of Bali. She arrived 16 May on
her patrol station off the coast of Malaya, and soon afterward encountered
minelayer Hatsutaka heading south along the coast. She attacked and obtained
two hits, causing severe damage. The ship was observed next morning being
towed to the beach. At a range of almost 5,000 yards (4,600 m), Hawkbill
fired three more torpedoes into the shallow waters and broke the ship in
half, sinking a familiar enemy of submarines operating on the Malayan coast.
After further patrol off Malaya and in the Gulf of Siam, she arrived Subic
Bay 18 June 1945.
Fifth War Patrol and Japanese Surrender
Hawkbill departed for her fifth and last war patrol 12 July. Returning to the
coast of Malaya, she attacked a convoy 18 July. Her first torpedoes missed,
and an hour later a depth charge attack of unusual accuracy and intensity
began. Hawkbill was blown partially out of the water by a perfectly placed
pattern and damaged considerably; but by hugging the bottom with all machinery
secured, she eluded the attacking destroyers. After a stay at Subic Bay for
repairs, she steamed to Borneo to rendezvous with Australian Army officers
for a special mission. Hawkbill destroyed two radio stations with her deck
guns, landed commandos at Terampha Town, and destroyed shore installations.
After reconnaissance of Anambas Island, also in the South China Sea, the
versatile submarine returned to Borneo 13 August.
Following the surrender of Japan, Hawkbill sailed to Pearl Harbor, departing
22 September 1945 for San Francisco. She decommissioned at Mare Island 30
September 1946 and joined the Reserve Fleet.
Hawkbill received six battle stars for World War II service. All five of her
war patrols were designated successful, and she received a Navy Unit
Commendation for her outstanding performance on patrols 1, 3, and 4.
HNLMS Zeeleeuw (S803)
Brought out of reserve in 1952, Hawkbill was given a GUPPY IB conversion and
loaned to the Netherlands under the Military Assistance Program 21 April 1953.
She was commissioned in the Royal Netherlands Navy as HNLMS Zeeleeuw (S803),
the first Dutch naval ship to be named for the sealion. Zeeleeuw reached
Rotterdam 11 June, in time to participate successfully in NATO summer
exercises, 'beating' the RN as well as the USN. On 24 November 1970 Zeeleeuw
was sold for scrap.